top of page


Image by Towfiqu barbhuiya



Electronic Medication Adherence Products and Strategies

Electronic medication adherence products (eMAPs) are devices that can be used to dispense medication at home. They have features such as audio and/or visual alarms, report generating abilities, and/or provide real-time adherence monitoring. Our team investigates the use and integration of these products in patients’ homes as well as community pharmacy.  

Completed Projects

Stakeholder Values

One study conducted by our team looked into the value that real-time access to medication intake data and the availability of smart adherence products hold for many stakeholders, including patients, their carers, doctors, and insurers.

For more information visit the following publications *change to citation

Faisal S, Ivo J, Abu Fadaleh S, Patel T. Exploring the value of real-time medication adherence monitoring: A qualitative study. Pharmacy 2023; 11.

Integration of Smart Medication Adherence into Homes

Little is known about how older adults integrate smart adherence products at home. Before effectiveness can be evaluated, it is vital to look into the facilitators and barriers older people have when incorporating these products into their medicine-taking routines. Our team analyzed the integration of these products and aimed to comprehend the behaviours associated with how older adults with chronic conditions take their medications. 

For more information visit the following publications: 

Faisal S, Ivo J, Tennant R, Prior KA, Grindrod K, McMillan C, Patel T. Integration of a smart multidose blister package for medication intake. A mixed method ethnographic informed study of older adults with chronic disease. PLOS One 2022; 17 (1): e0262012. 


Faisal S, Ivo J, McMillan C, Grindrod K, Patel T. In-home medication management by older adults: a modified ethnography study using digital photography walkabouts. Age and Ageing 2021; 1 – 11. 


Faisal S, Ivo J, Tennant R, Prior KA, Grindrod K, McMillan C, Patel T. Implementation of a real-time medication intake monitoring technology intervention in community pharmacy settings: A mixed-method pilot study. Pharmacy 2021; 9: 105.


Faisal S, Ivo J, Lee C, Carter C and Patel T. The usability, acceptability, and functionality of smart oral multidose dispensing systems for medication adherence: A scoping review. J Pharm Prac 2022; 35: 455 - 468. 

Medication Non-Adherence

Improving adherence to medications is an effective means in improving the health of a population, the healthcare system and limiting the costs associated with it. Our lab has researched the factors that drive medication adherence and the direct and indirect measures used to measure adherence. Ultimately developing useful strategies that healthcare providers can make use of with their patients. 

For more information visit the following publications:

Patel T. Medication nonadherence: Time for a proactive approach by pharmacists. Can Pharm J 2021; 154: 292 - 296. 

Features and Characteristics of eMAPS

Smart medication adherence products (smart MAPs) use a variety of connectivity options to record and communicate real-time medication intake, enabling remote monitoring. To address pharmaceutical nonadherence, a variety of such products with various properties are offered. For clinical decision-making, a comparison of the features of these products is required and this was conducted by our team.

For more information visit the following publications and posters: 

Faisal S, Ivo J, Patel T. A review of features and characteristics of smart medication adherence products. Can Pharm J 2021; 154: 312 - 323.

DSL - MMC (Domain Specific Limitation in Medication Management Capacity)

We created a tool known as the Domain Specific Limitation in Medication Management Capacity (DSL – MMC) Tool to provide a comprehensive tool with which to assess an older adult’s ability to manage their own medications.  


For more information visit the following publications:

Patel T, McDougall A, Ivo J, Carducci J, Pritchard S, Chang F, Faisal S, Lee C. Development and content validation of an instrument to measure medication self-management in older adults. Pharmacy 2021; 9: 78. 

MAPs (Medication Adherence Products)

We examined the usability and workload of 21 different eMAPs.  

For more information visit the following publications:

Faisal S, Ivo J, McDougall A, Patel T. Stakeholder Feedback of Electronic Medication Adherence Products: Qualitative Analysis. J Med Internet Res 2020; 22 (12): e18074.

Patel T, Ivo J, Faisal S, McDougall A, Bauer J, Pritchard S, Chang F. A prospective study of usability and workload of electronic medication adherence products by older adults, caregivers and healthcare providers. J Med Internet Res 2020; 22(6): e18073. 

Clinician Guide

We have developed a Clinician Guide to help clinicians compare the different features of eMAPs when recommending a medication dispensing product to their patients. 

For more information visit the following publications:

Patel T, Ivo J, McDougall A, Lee C, Chang F, Bauer J, Pritchard S. Development of a clinician guide for electronic medication adherence products in older adults. Can Pharm J 2022; 155: 119 – 127.

We have curated a list of marketed SMART medication adherence products (SMAPs) along with their description and data capture methods. Please see the document on the right for the complete list of products. If you wish to see a more in-depth document (with information such as availability by region, detailed product features and more) of all prototype and marketed SMAPs please click here.

eMAPs Product Comparison Guide

Ongoing Projects

Framework for Medication Adherence Dashboards

In this project, we are interviewing older adults, care partners, and clinicians to determine the key features, utilities and functionalities of an adherence dashboard. This project will help us develop a framework for future development of adherence dashboards.

Tools that Identify Barriers to Medication Taking in Older Adults

The ability of older adults to self-manage medications is influenced by a diverse variety of factors. We conducted a scoping review to identify tools that measure physical, cognitive, sensory (vision, hearing, touch), motivational, and environmental barriers to medication self-management in older adults. This review identified a number of validated tools to measure various challenges that older adults encounter with medication management. 

Classification of Medication Adherence Products

We are developing a classification system for the numerous technology-based products are available to support patients and caregivers manage their medication intake at home. The classification of adherence technologies is necessary for research and clinical practice as it facilitates clarity in communication, analysis, and comparison of the technologies.  

User Experience with Medication Adherence Technology

In this study, we are examining how various limitations in medication taking impacts the usability of medication adherence technologies in older adults.  

eMAP Survey

We are currently conducting a cross sectional survey to examine the beliefs, behaviours and medication management strategies of older adults with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease.

eMAPs Guide
bottom of page